Bright Air Brilliant Fire

Bright Air  Brilliant Fire Author Gerald M. Edelman
ISBN-10 0140172440
Release 1994
Pages 280
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The author takes the reader on a tour that covers such topics as computers, evolution, Descartes, Schrodinger, and the nature of perception, language, and invididuality. He argues that biology provides the key to understanding the brain. Underlying his argument is the evolutionary view that the mind arose at a definite time in history. This book ponders connections between psychology and physics, medicine, philosophy, and more. Frequently contentious, Edelman attacks cognitive and behavioral approaches, which leave biology out of the picture, as well as the currently fashionable view of the brain as a computer.



Vergleich des Interpretationskonstruktionismus mit dem teleologisch semantischen Funktionalismus nach Millikan unter Ber cksichtigung bewu tseinstheoretischer Erkenntnisse

Vergleich des Interpretationskonstruktionismus mit dem teleologisch semantischen Funktionalismus nach Millikan unter Ber  cksichtigung bewu  tseinstheoretischer Erkenntnisse Author Sandra Bohlinger
ISBN-10 9783832426729
Release
Pages 142
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Inhaltsangabe:Einleitung: In der Debatte um das menschliche Denken und Handeln, um mentale Modelle, Bewusstsein und Bewusstseinsinhalte sind einige der grundlegenden Fragen, wie und auf welche (physiologische) Art Gedanken entstehen, wie sie realisiert werden, wie sie sich auf menschliches Handeln auswirken und in welchem Maße Gedanken Dynamik statisch oder dynamisch sind. Von großer Bedeutung ist, welche Rolle Sprach in diesen Prozessen einnimmt und wie Sprache im Gehirn abläuft. Ein zentrales Thema sind dabei sogenannte mentale Repräsentationen, also Wünsche, Meinungen, Überzeugungen etc. Die Frage, der die Autorin nachgeht, ist die, wie diese mentalen Repräsentationen naturwissenschaftlich, aber auch philosophisch betrachtet, entstehen, wie sie zu Handlungen werden und wie ihre Wirkung nachgewiesen kann. Untersuchungsgegenstand ist in diesem Zusammenhang auch die sogenannte semantische Lücke , die Kluft zwischen gedanklich Gemeintem und sprachlich Geäußertem sowie die Entstehung von sogenannten Fehlrepräsentationen, also von Begriffen, die es in der Realität nicht gibt wie z. B. Einhörnern. Dabei werden vor allem zwei neuere Ansätze der Kognitionswissenschaft, nämlich der teleologische Funktionalismus und der Interpretationskonstruktionismus zur Erklärung herangezogen, da diese Ansätze weitläufige Möglichkeiten der Erklärung dieser Phänomene zulassen. Inhaltsverzeichnis:Inhaltsverzeichnis: 1.Einleitung2 1.1Abgrenzung und Zielsetzung3 1.2Aufbau der Arbeit5 1.3Textgrundlagen6 2.Grundlagen des Bewußtseins7 2.1Einleitung7 2.2Die Kognitionsleistung des Menschen im Kontext mit seiner Lernfähigkeit7 2.2.1Das Gedächtnis als Grundlage der Kognition und des Lernens9 2.2.2Die Prägung des menschlichen Lernens durch die Übernahme von Bewertungen und durch frühkindliche Erfahrungen11 2.2.2.1Lust und Schmerz als Beispiele eines kulturell geprägten Bewertungsschemas12 2.2.3Lernen bis zur Perfektion: Automatisierte Bewegungsabläufe13 2.2.4Die Ganzheitlichkeit der Wahrnehmung unter Berücksichtigung aller Sinneseindrücke15 2.3Die kurzen Momente des Bewußtseins: Mentales im Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit17 2.3.1Die verschiedenen Bewußtseinsebenen19 2.3.2Die Funktionen des Bewußtseins20 2.3.3Bewußtsein ist kein Prärogativ des Menschen21 2.3.4Die Genese des Bewußtseins22 2.4Das Modell mentaler Repräsentationen als Ansatz zur Klärung des Bewußtseinsphänomens25 2.5Allgemeine Begriffsdefinitionen einer Dynamik der mentalen Repräsentationen26 3.Der [...]



Komplexe Systeme und Nichtlineare Dynamik in Natur und Gesellschaft

Komplexe Systeme und Nichtlineare Dynamik in Natur und Gesellschaft Author Klaus Mainzer
ISBN-10 9783642600630
Release 2013-03-11
Pages 485
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Komplexe dynamische Systeme werden in verschiedenen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen untersucht - von Physik, Chemie, Biologie und Medizin über Kognitionswissenschaften und Psychologie bis zu Soziologie und Ökonomie. Dieser Band zieht Bilanz und zeigt künftige Forschungsperspektiven auf. Gemeinsames methodisches Thema ist die Modellierung komplexer Systeme, deren Dynamik durch Nichtlinearität bestimmt ist. Mathematische Methoden und Computersimulationen machen aber nur Sinn, wenn sie mit konkreten einzelwissenschaftlichen Analysen verbunden sind. Das Buch liefert nicht nur fachübergreifende Informationen über den aktuellen Forschungsstand, sondern kann auch von Nichtspezialisten als Einführung in das spannende Gebiet komplexer Systeme und nichtlinearer Dynamik in Natur und Gesellschaft gelesen werden.



Available Light

Available Light Author Clifford Geertz
ISBN-10 9781400823406
Release 2012-01-12
Pages 288
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Clifford Geertz, one of the most influential thinkers of our time, here discusses some of the most urgent issues facing intellectuals today. In this collection of personal and revealing essays, he explores the nature of his anthropological work in relation to a broader public, serving as the foremost spokesperson of his generation of scholars, those who came of age after World War II. His reflections are written in a style that both entertains and disconcerts, as they engage us in topics ranging from moral relativism to the relationship between cultural and psychological differences, from the diversity and tension among activist faiths to "ethnic conflict" in today's politics. Geertz, who once considered a career in philosophy, begins by explaining how he got swept into the revolutionary movement of symbolic anthropology. At that point, his work began to encompass not only the ethnography of groups in Southeast Asia and North Africa, but also the study of how meaning is made in all cultures--or, to use his phrase, to explore the "frames of meaning" in which people everywhere live out their lives. His philosophical orientation helped him to establish the role of anthropology within broader intellectual circles and led him to address the work of such leading thinkers as Charles Taylor, Thomas Kuhn, William James, and Jerome Bruner. In this volume, Geertz comments on their work as he explores questions in political philosophy, psychology, and religion that have intrigued him throughout his career but that now hold particular relevance in light of postmodernist thinking and multiculturalism. Available Light offers insightful discussions of concepts such as nation, identity, country, and self, with a reminder that like symbols in general, their meanings are not categorically fixed but grow and change through time and place. This book treats the reader to an analysis of the American intellectual climate by someone who did much to shape it. One can read Available Light both for its revelation of public culture in its dynamic, evolving forms and for the story it tells about the remarkable adventures of an innovator during the "golden years" of American academia.



The Perception of Visual Information

The Perception of Visual Information Author William R. Hendee
ISBN-10 0387949100
Release 1997-06-27
Pages 409
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Review of current knowledge, research, and theory on human vision, and the information processing it involves. Includes implications for image presentation and interpretation. For researchers in medical imaging and bioengineering.



The Construction of Cognitive Maps

The Construction of Cognitive Maps Author Juval Portugali
ISBN-10 9780792339496
Release 1996-03-31
Pages 365
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This book sheds light on processes associated with the construction of cognitive maps, that is to say, with the construction of internal representations of very large spatial entities such as towns, cities, neighborhoods, landscapes, metropolitan areas, environments and the like. Because of their size, such entities can never be seen in their entirety, and consequently one constructs their internal representation by means of visual, as well as non-visual, modes of sensation and information - text, auditory, haptic and olfactory means for example - or by inference. Intersensory coordination and information transfer thus play a crucial role in the construction of cognitive maps. Because it involves a multiplicity of sensational and informational modes, the issue of cognitive maps does not fall into any single traditional cognitive field, but rather into, and often in between, several of them. Thus, although one is dealing here with processes associated with almost every aspect of our daily life, the subject has received relatively marginal scientific attention. The book is directed to researchers and students of cognitive mapping and environmental cognition. In particular it focuses on the cognitive processes by which one form of information, say haptic, is being transformed into another, say a visual image, and by which multiple forms of information participate in constructing cognitive maps.



Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences

Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences Author F. Hallyn
ISBN-10 9789401594424
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 244
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This collection of papers contains historical case studies, systematic contributions of a general nature, and applications to specific sciences. The bibliographies of the contributions contain references to all central items from the traditions that are relevant today. While providing access to contemporary views on the issue, the papers illustrate the wide variety of functions of metaphors and analogies, as well as the many connections between the study of some of these functions and other subjects and disciplines.



Making Sense Making Worlds

Making Sense  Making Worlds Author Nicholas Onuf
ISBN-10 9781136219467
Release 2013-05-07
Pages 256
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Nicholas Onuf is a leading scholar in international relations and introduced constructivism to international relations, coining the term constructivism in his book World of Our Making (1989). He was featured as one of twelve scholars featured in Iver B. Neumann and Ole Wæver, eds., The Future of International Relations: Masters in the Making? (1996); and featured in Martin Griffiths, Steven C. Roach and M. Scott Solomon, Fifty Key Thinkers in International Relations, 2nd ed. (2009). This powerful collection of essays clarifies Onuf’s approach to international relations and makes a decisive contribution to the debates in IR concerning theory. It embeds the theoretical project in the wider horizon of how we understand ourselves and the world. Onuf updates earlier themes and his general constructivist approach, and develops some newer lines of research, such as the work on metaphors and the re-grounding in much more Aristotle than before. A complement to the author’s groundbreaking book of 1989, World of Our Making, this tightly argued book draws extensively from philosophy and social theory to advance constructivism in International Relations. Making Sense, Making Worlds will be vital reading for students and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, social theory and law.



Affect and Artificial Intelligence

Affect and Artificial Intelligence Author Elizabeth A. Wilson
ISBN-10 0295800003
Release 2011-03-01
Pages 200
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In 1950, Alan Turing, the British mathematician, cryptographer, and computer pioneer, looked to the future: now that the conceptual and technical parameters for electronic brains had been established, what kind of intelligence could be built? Should machine intelligence mimic the abstract thinking of a chess player or should it be more like the developing mind of a child? Should an intelligent agent only think, or should it also learn, feel, and grow? Affect and Artificial Intelligence is the first in-depth analysis of affect and intersubjectivity in the computational sciences. Elizabeth Wilson makes use of archival and unpublished material from the early years of AI (1945�70) until the present to show that early researchers were more engaged with questions of emotion than many commentators have assumed. She documents how affectivity was managed in the canonical works of Walter Pitts in the 1940s and Turing in the 1950s, in projects from the 1960s that injected artificial agents into psychotherapeutic encounters, in chess-playing machines from the 1940s to the present, and in the Kismet (sociable robotics) project at MIT in the 1990s.



Brain Framing

Brain Framing Author Dr. Linda Karges-Bone
ISBN-10 9781429122788
Release 2011-09-01
Pages 152
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Brain Framing is a book of ideas for thinking about thinking in the classroom, ideas to help us frame the brains of students in ways that are productive, powerful, and personal. This book will help teachers to engage brains in three fresh ways: framing student learning into more personalized experiences that utilize new research on the brain, the body, and the spirit; creating brain-friendly classroom environments that link sensory and cognitive experiences in ways that reduce stress for both the teacher and the student; and organizing content into meaningful chunks and layers that fit into the unique frames of students brains.



Mimesis and the Human Animal

Mimesis and the Human Animal Author Robert Storey
ISBN-10 9780810114586
Release 1996-12-16
Pages 274
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In Mimesis and the Human Animal, Robert Storey argues that human culture derives from human biology and that literary representation therefore must have a biological basis. As he ponders the question "What does it mean to say that art imitates life?" he must consider both "What is life?" and "What is art?" A unique approach to the subject of mimesis, Storey's book goes beyond the politicizing of literature grounded in literary theory to develop a scientific basis for the creation of literature and art.



The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics Author Dirk Geeraerts
ISBN-10 9780199890026
Release 2010-06-09
Pages 1368
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The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics presents a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical concepts and descriptive/theoretical models of Cognitive Linguistics, and covers its various subfields, theoretical as well as applied. The first twenty chapters give readers the opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the fundamental analytic concepts and descriptive models of Cognitive Linguistics and their background. The book starts with a set of chapters discussing different conceptual phenomena that are recognized as key concepts in Cognitive Linguistics: prototypicality, metaphor, metonymy, embodiment, perspectivization, mental spaces, etc. A second set of chapters deals with Cognitive Grammar, Construction Grammar, and Word Grammar, which, each in their own way, bring together the basic concepts into a particular theory of grammar and a specific model for the description of grammatical phenomena. Special attention is given to the interrelation between Cognitive and Construction Grammar. A third set of chapters compares Cognitive Linguistics with other forms of linguistic research (functional linguistics, autonomous linguistics, and the history of linguistics), thus giving a readers a better grip on the position of Cognitive Linguistics within the landscape of linguistics at large. The remaining chapters apply these basic notions to various more specific linguistic domains, illustrating how Cognitive Linguistics deals with the traditional linguistic subdomains (phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax, text and discourse), and demonstrating how it handles linguistic variation and change. Finally they consider its importance in the domain of Applied Linguistics, and look at interdisciplinary links with research fields such as philosophy and psychology. With a well-known cast of contributors from around the world, this reference work will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in (cognitive) linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.



A Communion of Subjects

A Communion of Subjects Author Paul Waldau
ISBN-10 9780231509978
Release 2006-12-18
Pages 720
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A Communion of Subjects is the first comparative and interdisciplinary study of the conceptualization of animals in world religions. Scholars from a wide range of disciplines, including Thomas Berry (cultural history), Wendy Doniger (study of myth), Elizabeth Lawrence (veterinary medicine, ritual studies), Marc Bekoff (cognitive ethology), Marc Hauser (behavioral science), Steven Wise (animals and law), Peter Singer (animals and ethics), and Jane Goodall (primatology) consider how major religious traditions have incorporated animals into their belief systems, myths, rituals, and art. Their findings offer profound insights into humans' relationships with animals and a deeper understanding of the social and ecological web in which we all live. Contributors examine Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Daoism, Confucianism, African religions, traditions from ancient Egypt and early China, and Native American, indigenous Tibetan, and Australian Aboriginal traditions, among others. They explore issues such as animal consciousness, suffering, sacrifice, and stewardship in innovative methodological ways. They also address contemporary challenges relating to law, biotechnology, social justice, and the environment. By grappling with the nature and ideological features of various religious views, the contributors cast religious teachings and practices in a new light. They reveal how we either intentionally or inadvertently marginalize "others," whether they are human or otherwise, reflecting on the ways in which we assign value to living beings. Though it is an ancient concern, the topic of "Religion and Animals" has yet to be systematically studied by modern scholars. This groundbreaking collection takes the first steps toward a meaningful analysis.



An Essay Concerning Sociocultural Evolution

An Essay Concerning Sociocultural Evolution Author Juergen Kluever
ISBN-10 9789401599764
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 242
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Writing about sociocultural evolution is always a complicated enterprise, because the subject is not only difficult in a scientific way but also in a political one. In particular since the events of September 11, 2001 the debates about the differences between cultures and their evolutionary developments have left the fields of pure scientific research once and for all. However, there have probably never been scientific discourses that did not touch the realms of political discussions - Darwin, Marx, the atomic physicists and the recent debates about genetic engineering are just a few examples. The aim of this book is not to take part in these debates but it is written as a contribution to the foundations of evolutionary theories in the social sciences. The readers will have to judge if I have succeeded with it. Perhaps essays like this one will help to clarify the problems we all have to face just now in regard to intercultural discourses. Theoretically and mathematically grounded insights into cultural development as the source of many political problems will not solve to how to deal with them them immediately but may serve as signposts in the long run.



Radical Embodiment

Radical Embodiment Author David H. Nikkel
ISBN-10 9781630878085
Release 2010-01-01
Pages 202
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"Radical embodiment" refers to an anthropology and an epistemology fundamentally rooted in our bodies as always in correlation with our natural and social worlds. All human rationality, meaning, and value arise not only instrumentally but also substantively from this embodiment in the world. Radical embodiment reacts against Enlightenment mind-body dualism, as well as its monistic offshoots, including the physicalism that reduces everything to component matter-energy at the expense of subjectivity and meaning. It also rejects certain forms of postmodernism that reinscribe modern dualisms. David H. Nikkel develops the perspective of "radical embodiment" by examining varieties of modern and postmodern theology, and the nature and role of tradition-in terms of linguistic and non-linguistic experience, the religion and science dialogue on the nature of consciousness, and the immanent and transcendent aspects of God.



The Myth of the Closed Mind

The Myth of the Closed Mind Author Ray Scott Percival
ISBN-10 9780812697957
Release 2011-12-15
Pages 352
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“It’s like talking to a brick wall” and “We’ll have to agree to disagree” are popular sayings referring to the frustrating experience of discussing issues with people who seem to be beyond the reach of argument. It’s often claimed that some people—fundamentalists or fanatics—are indeed sealed off from rational criticism. And every month new pop psychology books appear, describing the dumb ways ordinary people make decisions, as revealed by psychological experiments. The conclusion is that all or most people are fundamentally irrational. Ray Scott Percival sets out to demolish the whole notion of the closed mind and of human irrationality. There is a difference between making mistakes and being irrational. Though humans are prone to mistakes, they remain rational. In fact, making mistakes is a sign of rationality: a totally non-rational entity could not make a mistake. Rationality does not mean absence of error; it means the possibility of correcting error in the light of criticism. In this sense, all human beliefs are rational: they are all vulnerable to being abandoned when shown to be faulty. Percival agrees that people cling stubbornly to their beliefs, but he maintains that not being too ready to abandon one’s beliefs is rational.



Student Learning Abroad

Student Learning Abroad Author Michael Vande Berg
ISBN-10 9781579227166
Release 2012-10-29
Pages 470
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A central purpose of this book is to question the claims commonly made about the educational benefits of study abroad. Traditional metrics of enrollment increases and student self-report, and practices of structural immersion, are being questioned as educators voice growing uncertainty about what students are or are not in fact learning abroad. This book looks into whether these criticisms are justified—and what can be done if they are. The contributors to this book offer a counter-narrative to common views that learning takes place simply through students studying elsewhere, or through their enrolling in programs that take steps structurally to “immerse” them in the experience abroad. Student Learning Abroad reviews the dominant paradigms of study abroad; marshals rigorous research findings, with emphasis on recent studies that offer convincing evidence about what undergraduates are or are not learning; brings to bear the latest knowledge about human learning and development that raises questions about the very foundations of current theory and practice; and presents six examples of study abroad courses or programs whose interventions apply this knowledge. This book provokes readers to reconsider long-held assumptions, beliefs and practices about teaching and learning in study abroad and to reexamine the design and delivery of their programs. In doing so, it provides a new foundation for responding to the question that may faculty and staff are now asking: What do I need to know, and what do I need to be able to do, to help my students learn and develop more effectively abroad? Contributors: Laura Bathurst Milton Bennett Gabriele Weber Bosley John Engle Lilli Engle Tara Harvey Mitchell Hammer David Kolb Bruce La Brack Kris Hemming Lou Kate McCleary Catherine Menyhart R. Michael Paige Angela Passarelli Adriana Medina-López Portillo Meghan Quinn Jennifer Meta Robinson Riikka Salonen Victor Savicki Douglas Stuart Michael Vande Berg James Zull While the authors who have contributed to Student Learning Abroad are all known for their work in advancing the field of education abroad, a number have recently been honored by leading international education associations. Bruce La Brack received NAFSA’s 2012 Teaching, Learning and Scholarship Award for Innovative Research and Scholarship. Michael Paige (2007) and Michael Vande Berg (2012) are recipients of the Forum on Education Abroad’s Peter A. Wollitzer Award.